CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Weatherhead School of Management Human Resource Analysis & Policies LHRP 421 (W 6:00-8:00) 368-5001 (MSGS) Spring, 1997 283-2651 (FAX) Dr. Anna D. Smith Description This course is designed as a broad introduction to the field of human resources management and industrial relations policy. As such, it covers a variety of topics in order to develop the important managerial themes in the field. Students will have an opportunity to select and explore one topic in depth through the preparation of a team project. In addition to the substantive topics covered in the course, students will assess and develop their personal negotiation and conflict management skills. Requirements In addition to the reading assigned and participation in class exercises and discussions, the course requires an examination, an individually-written paper. and a team project involving an optional presentation to the class and required written paper. The exam and each of the papers will be equally weighted (1/3 of course grade each). Marginal course grades will be resolved on the basis of class participation. Details of the written assignments are appended. Texts Fisher, Roger and Ury, William. Getting to Yes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. Available from bookstore. CWRUNotes reading packet available for purchase from book store. Works Council The class works council acts as an advisory and communications body. Its function is to reduce the need to use valuable class time for purely administrative matters and to provide students with an anonymous opportunity to express concerns and influence the course before its conclusion. Any course-related subject except individual performance may be brought before the council. Typical matters are requests for assignment clarification, team problems, and suggestions for course improvement. The instructor may also solicit class advice through the works council. Each team will select one representative, who may be replaced once during the semester, to attend the weekly 30 minute meetings before class. Class Summaries Two volunteers each week will have an opportunity to prepare a 1-2 page summary or outline of the day's class for distribution to peers and feedback from the instructor. Outline and Assignments A. CONCEPTS Jan. 15 I. The Employment Relationship Exercise: Performance Appraisal Negotiation Jan. 22 II. Human Resource Management Systems Readings: Schein, "Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better HR Planning and Development," Sloan Management Review, Fall 1977, pp. 1-20. Kochan & Capelli, "The Transformation of the Industrial Relations and Personnel Function," in Internal Labor Markets (P. Osterman, ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984, pp. 133-161. Laurent, "The Cross-Cultural Puzzle of International HRM," Human Resource Management, 25:1 (Spring 1986), pp. 91-102. Case Discussion: Air Traffic Controllers. What idea from each article do you find especially useful for understanding and explaining the situation described in the case? Administration: Initial team selection. Submit to instructor. Jan. 29 III. Staffing Reading: Beer, Spector et al., "Human Resource Flow Policies, Systems and Practices," excerpted from Human Resource Management: A General Manager's Perspective, 1985, pp. 216-237. Huber, Northcraft & Neale, "Foibles and Fallacies in Organizational Staffing Decisions," in Readings in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 3rd ed. (Schuler, Youngblood & Huber, eds.), 1988, pp. 193-205. Case: AT&T. In-class exercise based on the case. Administration: Final team selection. Works Council election. Submit to instructor. Feb. 5 IV. Motivation & Compensation Readings: French, "Organizational Justice," Ch. 8 of Personnel Management Process, pp. 128-137. French, "Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance," Ch. 6 of Personnel Management Process, pp. 83- 99. Lawler, "Setting Strategic Objectives for Pay Systems," Ch. 2 of Strategic Pay: Aligning Organizational Strategies and Pay Systems, pp. 13-36. Exercise: Salary Budget Allocation (prepare in advance) Works Council meets. Feb. 12 V. Supervision & Control Readings: Dalton & Lawrence, excerpt from Motivation and Control in Organizations, pp. 13-16. Tannenbaum, Variable Control Pie excerpt from "Unions," pp. 739-740. Homans, excerpts from The Human Group Dalton, "Power Struggles in the Line" Ch. 3 of Men Who Manage, pp. 18-49. Case Discussion: Hewlett-Packard. Compare and contrast control in Hewlett-Packard with that in the two organizations described by Homans and Dalton. What are the differences in their approachs and what are the causes of their success/failure? Works Council meets. Feb. 19 VI. Conflict & Grievances Readings: French, "Organizational Justice," Ch. 8 of Personnel Management Process, pp. 145-150. Brown, "Introduction" excerpt from Managing Conflict at Organizational Interfaces, pp. 1-9. Hirschman, selections from Exit, Voice & Loyalty, pp. 1-5, 21-43, 76-87, 120-126. Cox, "The Multicultural Organization," Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 34-47. Case Discussion: Highland Products. Apply the concepts of expectancy theory to explain why Susan wrote the letter. Be sure to explain both the source of her dissatisfaction and the vehicle she chose to express it. Assuming her allegations are true, what are the consequences of discrimination for the organization? Are the only costs those of violating the law? Works Council meets. Feb. 26 VII. Labor Markets & Union Organizing Readings: Spector, "Note on Why Employees Join Unions." Kaufman, "The Demand for Labor in the Short Run," Ch. 4 of The Economics of Labor Markets & Labor Relations, pp. 129-165. Reynolds, Masters & Moser, Demand elasticity excerpt from Labor Economics & Labor Relations, 10th ed., pp. 126-132. Case Discussion: First National Bank. 1. Explain the employees' dissatisfaction in terms of equity theory. What does this theory suggest the employer should do? 2. Explain the employees' decision to pursue change through the union in terms of expectancy theory. How does this theory explain the employer's actions in response to the organizing effort. 3. Do the determinants of the elasticity of demand for labor suggest the union would be relatively strong or weak at the bargaining table with First National Bank? What could the union do here to strengthen its position? Works Council meets. Mar. 5 VIII. Collective Bargaining & Partnering Readings: Tannenbaum, Functions excerpt from "Unions," pp. 720-725. Freeman & Medoff, "A New Portrait of U.S. Unionism," Ch. 1 of What Do Unions Do? Barbash, "The New Industrial Relations," Labor Law Journal (August, 1986), pp. 528-533. Hoerr, "What Should Unions Do." Harvard Business Review, May-June, 1991, pp. 30-45. Drucker, Peter. "Peter Drucker Asks: Will Unions Ever Again Be Useful Organs?" Industry Week, March 20, 1989. Case Discussion: GM/UAW. What did GM have to gain from cooperating with the UAW for QWL? What did the UAW and its members have to gain from cooperating with GM for QWL? Do QWL efforts such as these make permanent labor peace possible? Why or why not? Project: Proposal due. Include outline, bibliography, interview subjects and plan for presentation. Works Council meets. Mar. 12 Spring Break Mar. 19 IX. Examination B. SKILLS BUILDING Mar. 26 X. Bilateral Negotiations Readings: Tobias, "Winning through Negotiation" in Lewicki & Litterer, Negotiations Readings, Exercises & Cases. Homewood, IL.: Irwin, 1985, pp. 6-18. Lewicki & Litterer, excerpts from "Planning and Preparation," Ch. 3 of Negotiation. Homewood, IL.: Irwin, 1985, pp. 45-55, 71-73. Exercise: Salary Negotiations Works Council meets. April 2 XI. Inter-Group Negotiations Reading: Fisher & Ury, Getting to Yes. Entire book. Exercise: Central Industries. (Read "Introduction.") Works Council meets. April 9 XII. Agents & Third Parties Readings: Nierenberg & Calero, "Meta-Talk: The Art of Deciphering Everyday Conversation" in Lewicki & Litterer, Negotiations Readings, Exercises & Cases, op. cit., pp. 190-196. Moine, "To Trust, Perchance to Buy" in Lewicki & Litterer, Negotiations Readings, Exercises & Cases, op. cit., pp. 216-220. Exercise: Chemical Spill. (Read "The Setting.") Works Council meets. C. APPLICATIONS TO CURRENT ISSUES April 16 XIII. Public Policy & Human Resources Readings: Miner, "Legal Concerns Facing Human Resources Managers: An Overview." Northcraft & Licata, "Can We Legislate Employment Equity?" Team Presentation(s): To be announced Works Council meets. Written Assignment Due: Negotiations Paper April 23 XIV. Technology, Alienation & Productivity Readings: Kanungo, excerpt from Work Alienation: An Integrative Approach, pp. 18-30, 88-90. Davenport, "Enterprise for Everyman." Walton, "From control to commitment in the workplace," Harvard Business Review, March-April 1985, pp. 77-84. Team Presentation(s): To be announced Works Council meets. April 30 XV. Industrial Democracy & LHR in Other Countries Readings: Mulder, "Reduction of Power Differences in Practice: The Power Distance Reduction Theory and its Implications." Bamber & Lansbury, "Studying International and Comparative Industrial Relations." Bean, "Industrial Relations in Multinational Enterprises." Team Presentation(s): To be announced Required In-Class Activity: Course, instructor and team evaluations. Written Assignment: Team Projects. Specifications of Written Assignments & Projects All written material over the course of the semester should make reference to course readings (cite authority) and concepts wherever they are relevant. They should be treated as an opportunity to display your knowledge of the concepts and to apply them in a way that provides insight into the underlying forces of the facts. This is to say that written work should be analytical, and not merely descriptive. Mar. 5: Project Proposal See Team Projects below. Mar. 19: Examination An in-class essay examination calling upon you to synthesize the material covered in the first eight meetings of the course. One- third of course grade. April 11: Negotiations Paper This paper should address important negotiation concepts illustrated by your personal experiences on the exercises of Section B of the course. You may find it enlightening also to consider and integrate concepts and experience from Section A and/or your project team's dynamics. The paper should also assess your preferred negotiating style and your personal strengths and weaknesses in negotiating including (1) how well you did in terms of substantive outcomes, (2) impact on future relationships, (3) what you would like to do better, and (4) what you can do to improve. A separate criteria sheet will be provided. 5 pages. One-third of course grade. To reinforce what you've learned from each exercise and to prepare for writing the paper you may find it helpful to write some notes to yourself as soon as possible after each exercise. Some questions to think and write about are: What went well for you? What did you personally find most difficult to do (this suggests areas for development)? What new learning from the exercise did you find particularly helpful? April 30: Team Projects See Team Projects below. One-third of course grade. TEAM PROJECTS Teams/Topics Project teams must consist of 4-5 people. A short time in the second class session will be spent to assist formation of teams along topic lines, although teams may be formed on other bases (e.g. residence, employer, friendship). Teams should be identified to the instructor that class. Teams may choose to study any aspect of human resource management so long as it relates to one of topics XIII through XV. Topic selection should be identified to the instructor the third meeting of class and later refined when the literature has been explored. Resources The project must incorporate two types of resources: published scholarly literature and data collected from student-conducted field interviews. The literature reviewed should not be limited to popular management journals such as Harvard Business Review, but should be primarily drawn from scholarly journals such as Industrial Relations, monographs and academic association meeting proceedings. Appended is further advice on acceptable abstracts and journals. The number and age of sources needed will depend on the topic selected, but five is too few, fifty too many. There should be at least as many interviews as team members. Both types of resources must be fully cited in the bibliography and parenthetically referenced in the text (APA style). A bibliography is due March 5 as part of the project's Proposal. Written Papers The body of the group paper may be no longer than 25 pages (typed, double-spaced), although there may be additional pages of appendices and there must be a list of references/bibliography. The paper should develop some clear themes or thesis and have a final section setting forth its conclusions. In other words, this is to be an analytical paper, not a descriptive report. Past experience is that because of separate contributions by group members, sections of the paper do not integrate well with one another. This is a flaw you should attempt to avoid. It generally requires three drafts: rough for blocking of ideas, second for integration and clarity of expression, and final for punctuation, spelling, format, etc. The written paper (two copies with self- addressed, stamped envelope for return of one copy with comments) is due April 30. Presentations During meetings XIII through XV, selected teams will present the results of their research. The number of teams presenting will depend on the quality of proposals received. Each group that is selected and that makes a high quality presentation will be eligible for bonus points (generally from .16 to .33 on a 4-point scale) and will receive the esteem of their assembled peers. This opportunity will be awarded based on proposals submitted by each team on March 5. Each winning group will have one half-hour of class time, including time for students' questions and comments. Experience indicates that groups should plan to use 15-20 minutes and, through a process not clearly understood, the presentation will end up taking one-half hour. Each presentation should have some entertainment value to it, and the entertainment should contribute to the remembering of important points. In the past, dramatizations, quiz shows and in-class exercises have been produced by enterprising teams. Given the limited time, few points can be made. Be selective. Treat the class session as a short training session for interested managers. Do not attempt to review all the material that will be in the group paper to be submitted later. Proposals Turn in a project proposal March 5. This proposal should include team members, topic, thesis or objective, an outline, a bibliography, and a description of the presentation you propose to give the class. One reading may be indicated for distribution to the class should your proposal be accepted. Team Rules Ground rules for the groups are that any member may be expelled by the rest of the group up to two weeks prior to the due date for the written paper. (In such a case, inform the instructor.) Further, when the group paper is turned in, each person will evaluate the contribution of all other members of their team. These rules are designed to encourage roughly equal contributions by all members of a group. Past experience suggests that more than 80 percent of the groups function well, but success does require that effort be put into managing the group. Try to look on this as an opportunity to practice the human resource management principles of the course and to dig in depth into a topic that truly interests you. Evaluation Teams will evaluated both on results (written paper and class presentation) and effort (team management). The latter will be assessed both in terms of degree of difficulty (including size and diversity) and quality of functioning (e.g. utilization of members' resources, consideration for members' perspectives, needs and objectives, ability to marshall external resources when appropriate to solve team problems). Inasmuch as integrative collaborative efforts tend to produce high quality results, greater weight will be given to results. Criteria for evaluating results will be provided during the course of the semester, as will a model student paper. Free Advice Read these instructions over several times as you work on the project. Teams have been known to forget a critical element, such as interviews! Library Resources CWRU Libraries Smith is the place to start. Some other libraries, such as the Law School, may be critical for some topics. Abstracts Human Resources Abstracts, Work-Related Abstracts and Psychological Abstracts. Avoid general business indexes, since these reference trade journals and other popular literature. Journals Academy of Management Journal Academy of Management Review Administrative Science Quarterly American Economic Review Dispute Resolution Journal Employee Relations Law Journal Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal European Journal of Industrial Relations Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Review Human Resources Industrial & Labor Relations Review Industrial Relations Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Journal of Applied Psychology Journal of Labor Research Journal of Management Journal of Personality & Social Psychology Labor Law Review Leadership Quarterly Monthly Labor Review Negotiation Journal Organization Science Organizational Behavior & Human Performance Organizational Dynamics Personnel Personnel Journal Personnel Psychology Training & Development Work & Occupations Executive management journals such as Harvard Business Review and Academy of Management Executive may be included, but should not dominate your references. Annual series such as Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management and academic conference proceedings (Academy of Management, Industrial Relations Research Assn., e.g.) are also acceptable LHRP421N.SYL